The increasing use of powder metallurgy techniques to make an almost infinite variety of materials and products places greater emphasis on utilization of sophisticated experimental techniques. Usually research and development efforts initiate the use of newly developed equipment and analytical procedures. Indeed, the contents of this book are strongly linked to research endeavors, in both the academic and industrials worlds. However, this volume can serve a much needed function in industrial applied powder metallurgy. Although many researchÂ ers will find the contents of great value, the technical personnel more involved with production, quality control, customer services and product design now have at their dispoÂ sal a means to learn about the potential uses of several very important techniques. With today's "knowledge explosion" the present set of papers greatly facilitates the comprehension and adoption of new procedures. If powder metallurgy is to continue its rapid rate of growth in virtually all segments of industry, then the transition of modern equipment and procedures from tools of research and development laboratories to everyday plant operations and applications must be hastened. The editors hope that this volume aids in this process, as well as assisting students and researchers by providing a ready source of up-to-date useful information.
This manual is designed to serve as a guidebook for school districts and LEAs who wish to implement their own virtual school programs. It is important for school districts to realize that they do not need to establish separate charter schools or other independent programs in order to maintain a virtual component. Likewise, schools do not need to outsource their virtual programs to private, third party venders. An ideal virtual program should be developed by a school's own personnel, mirror what is taught inside their traditional classrooms and be fully integrated in the school's own curriculum. Although this manual will address outsourcing options, private venders and courseware, the primary purpose of this guidebook is to explain in detail how schools may develop a first-rate virtual program using a free LMS/CMS (Moodle) and their existing resources.
This monograph presents a theoretical analysis of filtering techniques for turbulent flow simulation. Both space and space-time filtering approaches are considered. The basic characteristics of these techniques are described and contrasted with conventional approaches of turbulence modeling. The mathematical nature of the approximation of the nonlinear terms in the filtered equations of motion is investigated, and it is shown that those approximations possess an asymptotic nature. The filtering effect in Fourier space is investigated, and a three-scale filtering approach is also presented. Both the space-time and three-scale filtering approaches are numerously tested in the context of random Burgers' flow. Some familiarity with fluid dynamics, turbulence, numerical methods for the solution of partial differential equations, asymptotic expansions and Fourier transforms is expected from the reader. The monograph is intended for researchers and graduate students interested in turbulent flow simulation, and it will be primarily used as a reference.
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